The Nail Penetration Test for Solid-State Batteries ①

September 23, 2022

Are solid-state batteries safe? The Battery Nail Penetration Test will tell you the answer. 

Put the fully charged battery on a flat surface, and use a steel needle to pierce the battery radially, which is to test whether the battery catches fire or explodes. In daily use, the battery may be short-circuited due to being penetrated by foreign objects. So the test can well reflect the occurrence of battery short circuits. When the steel needle penetrates, the steel needle provides a short-circuit path inside the battery, and the electric energy of the battery is converted into heat energy and stored inside the battery. The short circuit causes the concentrated explosion and release of energy in a short period, which may cause smoke and leakage. Even catch fire and explode. 

the principle of internal short circuits triggered by nail penetration

However, high-energy lithium-ion batteries can pass the acupuncture test through the improvement of battery materials and structural design. So take our high-energy series of solid-state batteries as an experiment for demonstration.

Battery Nail Penetration Test

Ternary High Nickel Liquid Battery VS Solid-State Battery


The battery is charged to 4.2V at 1C constant current, 

charged to cut off current of 0.05C at constant voltage. 

Use a 5mm steel needle (the conical angle of the needle tip is 45°,

 and the surface of the needle is smooth and free of dirt)

to penetrate from the direction perpendicular to the battery 

at the speed of 25mm / s. The penetrating position is close 

to the center of the battery surface, and the steel needle 

stays in the battery for observation for 1h.



Ternary High Nickel Liquid Battery

Intense Combustion

 Surface Temperature over 450°C

Solid-State Battery

No fire, no fog

Surface Temperature 30°C, Keep Working


There are many safety problems in liquid lithium batteries. 

The electrolyte is an organic liquid, and the tendency of side reactions, oxygenolysis, gas generation, and combustion 

will aggravate at high temperatures. However, with solid-state battery technology, these problems can be solved perfectly. 

Solid-state batteries use non-flammable solid electrolytes to replace the volatile and flammable liquid electrolytes in

 traditional lithium-ion batteries,  which are generally believed to effectively improve battery safety.  In conclusion, 

the main reason for the flammability of lithium batteries is that the electrolyte that conducts ions is extremely flammable. 

However, solid-state batteries can reduce or even not use electrolytes at all,  which not only solves 

the flammability problem but also improves battery life.

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